This is the dictionary/list of all gods and goddesses in Greek Mythology.
Primeval Gods and GoddessesEdit
The Protogenoi are the first beings in existence in Greek Mythology. They were visioned as merely elemental beings (i.e. Gaia being the body of earth, Pontos being the sea itself). Their forms were rather inseparable from their native elements.
- Chaos: The ancient genderless deity of air and the void. Chaos was usually replaced by Ananke and Chronos, the protogenoi of fate and time or was replaced by Elder Eros who put things into motion. Chaos was the first protogenoi and was also a goddess of fate like her daughter Nyx and grand-daughters the Moirai. Chaos was also said to be the primeval mix of elements but this was not the original meaning. She was also known as Khaos, Khaeos or Aer.
- Nyx: The ancient goddess of the night. She was the daughter of Chaos (air) and the consort of Erebus (darkness). She spawned the gods, Aether, the shining light and Hemera, day. She was the mother of dark daimons or spirits, including the three Fates (Moirai), Hypnos, Eris, Thanatos and Nemesis. In ancient art Nyx was portrayed as a either a winged goddess or charioteer, sometimes crowned with an aureole of dark mist. Homer calls her the subduer of gods and men, and relates that Zeus himself stood in awe of her. According a myth, Hypnos was sent by Hera, the queen of the gods to put Zeus into sleep but Zeus found out and chased Hypnos. Until, he came to the shelter of his mother, Nyx. In fear of angering the ancient goddess, Zeus held his anger at bay and left. Nyx had a cult in Megara, a city in Southern Greece and in Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire.
- Erebus: The ancient god of darkness. He was the son of Chaos and the consort of Nyx. His dark mists enveloped the edges of the world, and filled the deep hollows of the earth. His wife Nyx drew these mists across the heavens to bring night to the world. Erebus was also the name of the dark realm of the underworld. He was the father of Aether, Hemera, the Hesperides, Hypnos, the Moirae, Geras, Nemesis, and Thanatos.
- Aether: The god of brilliance of the glowing heaven. He was the son of Nyx and Erebus and the consort and brother of Hemera. Aether was regarded as the wide space of Heaven, the residence of the gods, and Zeus as the Lord of the Aether, or Aether itself personified. He with Hemera were the parents of Gaia (land), Ouranos (sky), Thallassa (sea), Nephelai (cloud nymphs) and other dark spirits that roam between his realm and his mother's. He was also the father of Pontus with his daughter, Gaia.
- Hemera: the goddess of day and the consort of Aither. She was a daughter of Erebos (Darkness) and Nyx (Night). She was usually confused with Eos, the titan goddess of dawn.
- Ouranos: The ancient god of sky and the son of Gaia or in some cases, Aether and Hemera. His parents varied. He was said to be the son of Nyx or Aither and Gaia or was born from the celestial egg. He is called the husband of Gaia, and by her the father of Oceanus, Coeus, Crius, Hyperion, Iapetus, Theia, Rheia, Themis, Mnemosyne, Phoebe Tethys, Cronos, of the Cyclopes, Brontes, Steropes, Arges, and of the Hecatoncheires Cottus, Briareus and Gyes. Ouranos disgusted at his sons, the Cyclopes and the Hecatoncheires trapped them in the womb of his wife. Gaia coaxed her titan children to rebel against her husband. The gods, Iapetus, Crius, Hyperion and Coeus were set as sentinels at the four corners of the world, ready to grasp their father as he descended to lie upon the Earth. The fifth and the youngest, Kronos killed his father. His blood fell to the earth transforming into the Erinyes, the Couretes and Aphrodite who was born from the foam that was merged with the blood of Ouranos. He was also the father of Aetna, the mountain goddess in Sicily.
- Gaia: The goddess of the earth. She was the grandmother of the gods as the heavenly gods were descended from her union with Ouranos (the sky), the sea-gods from her union with Pontos (the sea), the Gigantes from her mating with Tartaros (the hell-pit). In myths, she was the main opponent. She rebelled against her husband, Ouranos. She used Kronos who slayed Ouranos. However, she later assisted Zeus in the fight against the Titans. Finally she came into conflict with Zeus, angered with him for the binding of her Titan-sons in the pit of Tartaros. In her opposition she first produced the tribe of Gigantes and later the monster Typhoeus to dethrone him, but both failed in both attempts. She was the mother of the titans, Pontos, the mountains, Typhon, the gigantes and Pheme, the goddess of rumours. She was also the mother of Ekhidna, Python, the dragon of Colchis, the Nemean dragon and the ophiotaurus. Gaia birthed the sea-deities Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia. Aergia, a goddess of sloth and laziness, is the daughter of Aether and Gaia. Oaths sworn in the name of Gaia, in ancient Greece, were considered the most binding of all. She was also the mother of the elder Muses.
- Pontos: The god of water like Hydros and a personification of the sea, is described in the ancient cosmogony as a son of Gaea, and as the father of Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto, and Eurybia, by his own mother.
- Thalassa: The goddess of the sea and the daughter of Hemera and Aither. She with her counterpart Pontus were the parents of tribes of fish. Like the other Protogenoi, Thalassa was scarcely personified, instead her form was elemental, the body of the sea itself. In the fables of Aesop, Thalassa appears as a woman formed of sea water rising up from her native element. She was the representation of the Mediterranean sea.
- Tartarus: The god of damnation and the pit where the wicked are punished for their crimes. In the Iliad Tartarus is a place far below the earth, as far below Hades as Heaven is above the earth, and closed by iron gates. He was the father of Typhoneus with Gaia.
- Aeon/Khronos: Not to be confused with Kronos, the ruler of the titans Chronos was imagined as a god, serpentine in form, with three heads—those of a man, a bull, and a lion. He and his consort, serpentine Ananke (Inevitability), circled the primal world egg in their coils and split it apart to form the ordered universe of earth, sea and sky. He was depicted in Greco-Roman mosaics as a man turning the Zodiac Wheel. Often the figure is named Aeon (Eternal Time), a common alternative name for the god.
- Ananke: The goddess of neccessity and destiny. She was seen as the most powerful dictator of all fate and circumstance which meant that mortals, as well as the Gods, respected her and paid homage. She was also the mother of the Moirae, the three fates who were fathered by Zeus (some say that the mother of the Fates was Themis, the goddess of law and order). There was a temple in ancient Corinth where the goddesses Ananke and Bia (meaning violence or violent haste) were worshipped together in the same shrine.
- Eros: The god of sexual desire. He was the driving force behind the generation of new life in the early cosmos. He was also known as Phanes, the god of shining appearance. Eros was one of the fundamental causes in the formation of the world, inasmuch as he was the uniting power of love, which brought order and harmony among the conflicting elements of which Chaos consisted. The younger Eros was the playful son of Aphrodite and Ares.
- Phanes: The mystical deity of the Orphic cosmogony. He was the god of creation and life and was also known as Eros in some sense. Phanes was hatched from the world egg when it was split into its constituent parts by the ancient gods, Ananke and Khronos. Phanes gave his sceptre, the source of his divine rulership to Nyx who then passed it to her son, Ouranos. In some legends, Zeus devoured the god giving him the total power over the cosmos. He distributed it to the Olympians.
- Hydros: The god of water. According to the Orphic Theogony, He was the first gods to emerge from Chaos along with Thesis, the goddess of creation and Gaia, the goddess of mud in the tales. Hydros produced Khronos (Time) and Ananke (Compulsion). Khronos and Ananke hatched the world egg giving birth to Phanes who in turn put all the elements, Sea (Water), Heaven (Fire), Earth and Wind in order.
- Nesoi: The island divinities. They were once Ourea (mountains), casted into the sea by Poseidon with his trident.
- Ourea: The mountain gods. They are either protogenoi or spirits (daimons). Each and every mountain is said to have their own gods. In art, they are represented as bearded man. They are the son of Gaia.
Titan Gods and GoddessesEdit
The titans are the descendant of the protogenoi, Gaia and Ouranos. The titans ruled the universe before the Olympians. The majority of the titans are responsible for the establishments of calenders and time. In Cretan tradition, the titans were believed to bring agriculture during the Golden Age when Kronos ruled the world. Most titans were worshipped as obscure local gods around southern and central Greece.
Elder Titan GodsEdit
- Hyperion: The titan god of light and cycles of day and night. He was viewed as a god who first ordered the cycles of sun, moon and dawn, establishing the regular rhythm of days and months. He was the consort of Theia, the goddess of sight and became the father of Sun (Helios), Moon (Selene) and Dawn (Eos). It was said that Titan Hyperion was worshipped in Sikyonia.
- Iapetus: The titan god of mortal lifespan, craftsmanship and extreme intellectual traits. He is the grandfather of the human race and the assigner of human lifespan. With the titan goddess, Clymene, he was the father of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus and Menoitius.
- Koios: The titan god of inquistive mind, knowledge and the celestial poles. He represents the northern axis around which the constellations orbit. Koios also functioned as the god who spoke for his father, Ouranos (Sky). He was the consort of Phoebe, the goddess of light and moon and was the father of Leto and Asteria. Koios possessed a stream in Messenia.
- Krios: The titan god of stars, constellations and seasons. He was the god who ordered the measures of the year. He with the goddess, Eurybia became the father of the titans, Perses, Pallas and Astraeus. He was worshipped in Akhaia, a river sacred to him.
- Oceanus: The titan god of oceans. He is the god of all the waters which exist in the form of rivers, wells, springs and rain-clouds. Oceanus regulated the rising and setting of the celestial bodies. Unlike the other titans, he remained neutral during the titan war therefore he was not banished. He was the husband of Tethys and the father of water nymphs including Tyche, the goddess of luck, Calypso, Nemesis and Telesto.
- Kronos: The titan god of time and ruler of heavens. As the personification of time, he was probably regarded as the end of the world. The god was said to be cruel and merciless as he killed his father with a sickle and ate his own children. He was later banished to Tartarus. According to some, he became the ruler of the Isles of the Blessed (Elysian Isles). He was the husband of Rhea and became the father of Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, Poseidon and Zeus. He was also the father of Chiron and Aphros with the nymph, Philyre. Kronos was worshipped in Olympia.
Younger Titan GodsEdit
- Astraeus: The titan god of stars, dusk, planets and astronomy. He became the spouse of Eos (dawn) and was the father of Boreas, Notus, Eurus, Zephyrus and the Stars.
- Atlas: The titan god who was cursed to forever bear the sky. He was said to be the god who instructed mankind with the art of astronomy. Atlas was also the god who turns the sky causing the stars to revolve. He with Pleione became the father of the Pleiades, Hyades and Hyas. He was also the father of Hesperides, Dione, Maira and Calypso.
- Epimetheus: The titan god of afterthought. He and Prometheus were given to task to populate the earth with animals and men. Epimetheus wasted the gifts on the equipment of animals. Prometheus' creation, mankind was left in a near helpless state which led Prometheus to steal fire from the sun. Angered, Zeus wedded Pandora (the first woman) to Epimetheus as a scheme to deliver evil to humankind. She lifted the jar of evil which was given to them by the gods. Only Elpis (Hope) consoled them in their time of suffering. He was the father of Prophasis, the goddess of excuses and Pyrrha, the queen of Greece.
- Helios: The titan of the sun. He was also the god of oaths and sight. He dwelled in a golden palace on the eastern most region of the Earth. He was heralded by Eos, the goddess of dawn on a chariot led by stallions of fire every day. He was the father of several mortal and immortal men and women including Circe (the witch goddess), Pasiphae (another witch who was the wife of King Minos) and Phaeton (the Egyptian lord who was allowed to ride the chariot of the sun).
- Lelantos: The titan of air and silence while stalking prey. He was a male counterpart of Leto. He was the father of Aura, the goddess of breezes.
- Melisseus: The titan of honey and beekeeping. He was one of the Couretes and was the guardian of Dionysus.
- Menoetius: The titan god of rash action, impulse and hubris. Zeus struck him down to Tartarus due to his arrogance.
- Pallas: The titan god of war and campaign season. He was the father of Nike (Victory), Rivalry (Zelus), Might (Bia) and Force (Kratos) with Styx (Hate). His name means to brandish a spear, which usually an act to get ready to fight.
- Perses: The titan god of destruction, burning and drought. He was the father of Hekate with the goddess, Asteria. His name means to "Lay Waste" and "Destroy".
- Prometheus: The cunning titan god of forethought and counsel. He and his brother, Epimetheus were given the task to populate the earth with animals and humans. He created man out of clay but due to the gifts being wasted, Prometheus stole fire from the gods. He tricked the gods out of the best portion of the sacrificial feast, acquiring the meat for the feasting of man. Enraged, Zeus chained him in Mount Caucasus. A vulture or an eagle were to eat his regenerating liver or heart. He was worshipped in Phokis in Central Greece.