|Deity of:||Renewal and Sunrise|
|Symbol:||Scarab Beetle and Blue Lotus|
Khepri (Khepara, Chepri, Cheperi, Kephra) is the Egyptian god of renewal and sunrise. . The Egyptians watched the scarab beetle rolling dung into a ball and pushing it along the ground to its burrow. The Egyptians made a connection between the movement of the sun across the sky and the movement of the ball of dung pushed by the beetle. The solar connection was enhanced by the fact that the scarab has antenna on its head and when the scarab pushed a ball of dung along the ground, the ball would sit between the antenna in a way that was reminiscent of the solar disc flanked by a pair of horns which was worn by many deities.
The God of the SunEdit
Myths suggested that he rolled the ball of sun across Nut. Every night, Khepri would push the sun down into the underworld, and every morning the sun would again emerge and travel across the sky. The word "kheper" means "to emerge" or "to come into being".
Khepri was soon seen as an aspect of the sun itself, in particular the sun at day break - when it "emerged" from the underworld. He was closely associated with Atum (the creator god), Nefertum (literally "young Atum" or "beautiful Atum") and Ra (who absorbed many of Atum's attributes). Khepri was the emerging sun, Nefertum was the new born sun, Ra was the sun during the day, and Atum was the setting sun. in later funerary texts, Atum and Khepri merged into a ram-headed beetle who was the ultimate expression of the power of life over death. The reason Khepri has no parents is because ancient egyptians thought that the scarab beetle appeared out of no where so they also thought they thought that their creator appeared out of no where.
The Book of the DeadEdit
He was given a central role in the "book of the dead" ("the book of coming forth by day") and the "amduat" ("the book of that which is in the underworld" or "the book of the secret chamber") and scarab amulets were placed over the heart of the deceased during the mummification ritual. These "heart scarabs" were meant to be weighed against the feather of Ma´at (truth) during the final judgement. Scarabs were often inscribed with a spell from the Book of the Dead which instructed their heart .. "do not stand as a witness against me."
Khepri was usually depicted as a scarab beetle but occasionally appears as a man with the head of a scarab. There are numerous depictions of Khepri pushing the sun before him and he also appears regularly in a funerary setting riding on a sun barque as he travels through the underworld. Because of his connection with rebirth and the underworld, he occasionally wears the atef crown of Osiris.