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Mut
Statuette of Mut
Cult Center: Thebes
Deity of: Air, The Nation of Egypt, Queens
Consort: Amun
Sibling: None
Symbol: Vulture
Parents: None Self-Created
Offspring: Monthu and Khonsu

Mut replaced Amun's earlier wife, Amanuet (the invisible goddess) during the middle Kingdom. Mut was believed to have existed since primeval times, existing along side Nun, the primeval waters (possibly because she replaced Amaunet who was one of the ancient gods of the Ogdoad - the great eight - who lived in the waters). She was initially worshipped as a local deity, but rose to prominence as the queen of the gods when her husband, Amun, became the foremost national god during the New Kingdom. Thebes became the capital of Egypt, and the Theban gods became the national gods. As a result, Mut was also closely associated with the queen, the mother of the nation. She was particularly popular with the queens of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth dynasties, most notably the Pharaoh Hatshepsut and Nefertari Merytnmut ("Nefertari, Beloved of Mut") the Chief wife of Ramessess II.

Mut was a title of the primordial waters of the cosmos, Naunet, in the Ogdoad cosmogony during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2,686 to 2,134 B.C. However, the distinction between motherhood and cosmic water later diversified and lead to the separation of these identities, and Mut gained aspects of a creator goddess, since she was the mother from which the cosmos emerged.

When her husband Amun merged with the sun god Ra, as Amun-Ra, Mut inherited the title the "Eye of Ra" (a title also associated with Sekhmet, Hathor, Tefnut, Bast and Wadjet, amongst others). The "Eye of Ra" was the daughter of Ra in the form of a lion who embodied the fierce heat of the sun. However, Mut was also "Mother of the Sun in Whom He Rises" - making her both the mother and daughter of the sun god. Originally Montu (the Theban god of war) was considered to be their son, but he was replaced by Khonsu (the moon god). The Theban triad of Amun, Mut and Khonsu were worshipped at the Temple of Amun at Luxor (Ipet-Resyt). Although her worship centred around Thebes, she was also worshiped in Djannet (Tanis), Zau (Sais), the Oases of Kharga and Dakhla.


Depictions Edit

In art, Mut was pictured as a woman with the wings of a white vulture, holding an ankh, wearing the united crown of Upper and Lower Egypt and a dress of bright red or blue, with the feather of the goddess Ma'at at her feet.

Alternatively, as a result of her assimilations, Mut is sometimes depicted as a cobra, a cat, a cow, or as a lioness as well as the white vulture.

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